The Power of Teachers’ Expectations
This article presents a flagship experiment in educational psychology, showing the influence of the teachers’ expectations with regard to a student on his actual performance. It shows the mechanism of transformation of expectations into the phenomenon of a self-fulfilling prophesy (the Pygmalion effect and the Golem effect). It shows the role of intermediary factors in this mechanism: the qualities of the teacher, the qualities of the student, and certain situational variables. The article provides some suggestions on the teaching practice.
Key words: mechanism of self-fulfilling prophecy in education, the Pygmalion effect, the Golem effect, the concept of “four factors”
The Scientific Character of Pedagogy
The article presents the beginning and development of pedagogy as a study. Pedagogy is a study whose concern is the education of a man, and it belongs to humanistic disciplines. Pedagogy is concerned with the whole area of integral education of the man – it comprises the physical, intellectual, social and spiritual spheres. The article shows the connection between pedagogy and other sciences, with which it is integrated, as well as the place of pedagogy in the system of sciences.
Key words: science, pedagogy, methods and means of pedagogy, classification of sciences
Teacher in Adult Education in the Past and at Present
In this article the author presents an important problem within andragogy concerning the need of education and development and the function and tasks of teachers in adult education. He refers to history and tradition, points out to constant values which have been able to stay through time, and at the same time, he suggests what activities must be undertaken with regard to the issue, considering the good of contemporary adult education.
Key words: andragogy, adult education, teacher in adult education
The Significance of Philosophy for Pedagogy in view of the Enlightenment Period
This article is concerned with the views of well-known philosophers and ethicists, such as: Montaigne, Locke, Rousseau, Mandeville, Hume, Kant, and representatives of physiocratism, which influenced the educational theory and practice, and in particular the education and upbringing of children and young people. It must be noted that pedagogy is a study which supports shaping the character of a man and citizen, who, consciously, and partly habitually, shall implement the values he recognizes. Thanks to the pedagogical and educational efforts, we often enter the world of ideology, as well as politics. Thus, opinions and views of philosophers with regard to the sphere of educating of a man seem so interesting. There is a correlation between such disciplines of knowledge as philosophy and pedagogy.
Key words: upbringing, education, philosophers’ views
The Process of Social Educator Training in view of the Challenges of the 21st Century
The contemporary world is full of challenges which members of all social groups have to face, regardless of their nationality, culture or wealth. The human being is surrounded by a great range of temptations, by new articles of everyday use, an overwhelming excess of goods and offers, which creates a disruption in the hierarchy of our needs. The dynamic changes brought about by the development of the civilisation give rise to new symptoms of social inability to adapt. Thus, we must improve and develop methods and forms of psycho-pedagogic work, and create new forms of excelling the professional qualifications of a social educator. Therefore, we conclude that the process of educating a student is determined and led by the current needs. How to train active and creative social educators, then? Drawing on the experience of past generations, it must be stated that students should be taught so that they were able to:
- UNDERSTAND, AND NOT TO RECITE THE STUDIED MATERIAL,
- ACT, AND NOT ONLY TO OBSERVE,
- CREATE, AND NOT TO COPY.
Key words: social educator training, teaching process, upbringing
The Phenomenon of Adult Illiteracy in the Contemporary World
One of many interesting and multifaceted problems connected with the development of contemporary culture is the literacy level among adults, i.e. the level of assimilated ability to read, write and count.
The above article is concerned with the problem of illiteracy, which can be observed in contemporary societies. The article concentrates on the issue of secondary and functional illiteracy, which means difficulty in understanding and applying written information and graphic representations. Attention should also be drawn to mathematical illiteracy, which makes people unable to do simple calculations, necessary in everyday life, or cultural illiteracy, which concerns various relations between culture and the human nature. In view of that, the phenomenon of adult illiteracy is becoming a significant issue for research within andragogy.
Key words: complete illiteracy, secondary illiteracy, functional illiteracy, mathematical illiteracy, cultural illiteracy, adult education
Ecological Education of the Youth
One of the negative effects of the development of the technical civilisation is the natural environment pollution, which has a negative impact not only on animals and plants but also on the physical and psychological side of the man. The ecological crisis has an ethical dimension, because it has been brought about by the human who, in his strive to lead a more comfortable life, does not always take nature into consideration, of which he is part. Therefore, his appropriate upbringing is a prerequisite for the prevention of an ecological catastrophe on an even larger scale. The objective of the course “Ecological Education”, which is lectured in higher education institutions of pedagogy in Poland, is to contribute to a greater ecological awareness among young people. In the Higher School of Management and Administration in Zamość, the course aims to show the students the relation and mutual ties between the human being and the environment, acquaint the students with the essence of the contemporary ecological crisis and the ethical responsibility of the man for the state of the natural environment, and encourage them to shape a pro-ecological society and constant ecological education. The lectures are complemented with classes conducted by specialists in nature conservation, who, in a practical way, show the students how to take care of the environment in which they live. Practical methods and forms of ecological education are shown, which can be applied to work with children and students.
Key words: ecology, education, ecological crisis
The System of Professional Promotion of Teachers
Since the system of professional promotion of teachers was introduced there have been many agitated discussions assessing the purposefulness of its introduction, the procedure, and above all the impact on the teachers’ work, and, consequently, the influence on the quality of school activity. Assessing such a varied and extensive problem is a difficult and complex matter. The remaining part of the article shows the system of professional promotion of teachers in the context of introduced changes. Some issues are mentioned, which after a deeper analysis, could, at least to a slight degree, facilitate the process.
Key words: reform of the system of education, system of professional promotion of teachers, teacher education
Ronald E. Craig Jr.
Democracy and Freedom Modeled in Education
It is still debated in the academic community whether the goal of education as stated in the Bologna Process is sufficient to effect significant transformation of the individual into a fully engaged and participative person in a democratic society. The term Lifelong Learning is a hollow phrase that lacks the definitive value it should possess in such a document. We stand on the brink of a social revolution in field of Education that would certainly re-energize our culture’s power in the world at large. Reformation must begin, however, with the educator, shifting the importance of learning to the learner and away from the materials and methods. The educator becomes a mentor that enters into the process, transforming even testing by Vygotsky’s suggestions through application of the Zone of Proximal Development into an educational experience and a testing of realistic competence in context. The classroom becomes a location of flexible protocol, while being empowered as an educational facility for the soul of the learner.
Educator Training in Higher Education Institutions in Poland and in Ukraine in view of the Requirements of the Bologna Process
This article aims to compare the systems of student education in pedagogical studies in Poland and in Ukraine, acknowledging the requirements defined in the Bologna Process. The author uses an example of educational standards and programme and organisational solutions of two higher education institutions: the Lesya Ukrainka State University in Lutsk and the Higher School of Management and Administration in Zamość. The specialisation of the Chair of Pedagogy of the university in Lutsk is social pedagogy, whereas the Zamość school educates students in such specialisations as: social prevention and social rehabilitation. The author presents his professional experience, as he is conducting classes in both these higher education institutions.
Key words: educational system, teaching standards, Bologna Process
Łesia Martirosian, Lidia Gryciuk
Creating of a System of Social Educator Training in Ukraine
The article is concerned with the problem of creating and developing a system of social educators in Ukraine and the historical conditions and grounds for creating the profession of a social educator. The experience of the Ukrainian educational institutions of the twenties of the 20th century and the contemporary international experience are treated as two components creating the modern system of professional social educator training. A retrospective analysis has been carried out concerning the process of creating of this specialization.
The following stages of the development of the specialisation have been distinguished: 1991-1996 – creating higher education chairs of pedagogy and social work; 1997-2003 – preparing the national professional standard of social pedagogy; 2004-2005 – introducing the national professional standard of social pedagogy; 2005-2007 – seeking for a new approach for the creation of a system of training professional social educators in the context of integration with the European educational area.
Particular attention is drawn to the creation of basic components of the national professional standard, such as: the programme of professional education and the identification of areas of professional employment of qualified workers.
The Chair of Social Pedagogy of the Lesya Ukrainka State University in Lutsk exemplifies the process of application of the contents of binding teaching standards in practice.
An improvement of the teaching methods has been considered, some deficiencies in the modern system of training of social educators in Ukraine have been shown, as well as the directions of further development of the specialisation.
Key words: national professional standard, characteristics of educational qualifications, educational and professional programme, level of qualification, main social and pedagogic processes, functions of the social educator, credit-component system of the educational process
The Specificity of the Personality Culture Conflict of a Social Educator
The article is concerned with a current contemporary problem – the problem of the conflict of personality culture. It presents the essence of the concept of the personality culture conflict, its structure, functions, and the process of forming.
This article analyses the specificity of the personality culture conflict of a social educator. However, it is mainly communicativeness as the inner personality trait which comprises interpersonal communication abilities, social affinity, and altruistic emotions.
Key words: communicativeness, personality, social pedagogue, “personality culture conflict”
Partnership of Higher Education Institutions and Nongovernmental Organisations in Educating and Improving the Qualifications of Social Workers
At present in Ukraine there is an urgent need for informational and methodological support and acquiring specialists who will be engaged in practical social work.
Higher Education Institutions have a great potential within this respect, because they concentrate research staff and nongovernmental social organizations, which represent interests of different social groups.
This article draws our attention to the fact that the process of improving of the level of professional qualifications of social workers should be constructed on the basis of the following teaching principles: the leading role of a learner in the teaching process, joint actions, using various methods and techniques of active learning, evaluating teaching results.
A characteristic feature of the approach to the problem put forward in the article is combining the theoretical material with the parallel shaping of practical skills in educational work. Such work acknowledges various forms and methods of interactive training: mini-lectures, group work, workshops, games, individual case method, master courses and round tables.
A cascade model of training is shown, which comprises seminars, national, regional and local trainings, aimed at social work specialists.
Special attention is drawn to the need of improving of the qualifications of specialists. There are also examples of current problems within the professional duties of social workers.
The aim of the article is also to draw attention to the organisational dangers and difficulties resulting from the teaching process.
Key words: social work in a group, nongovernmental organizations, social worker’s professionalism, continuing education, improving qualifications, training
Interactive Techniques in Social Educator Training
The co-existence of the traditional and innovative system of education is a contemporary characteristic feature. The traditional passive model is concentrated on the transmission of knowledge, skills and qualifications using oral methods, such as a lecture.
The innovative system is an active model, whose aim is the implementation of the priority tasks of modern professional education, which comprises such skills as: learning in order to work, learning in order to co-exist, and learning in order to live. Its basic features are: co-operation, dialogue and conversation. It is interactive teaching, in which the educational process continues through constant active co-operation between the teacher and the student.
Key words: educational system, professional education, interactive teaching
Wolnowa Lesia Mykołaiwna
Shaping of Social Workers’ Psychological Culture
In this article the author considers the concept of the “psychological culture of a specialist”, including his predispositions and the level of professionalism, in connection with the purposefully planned process of creating of the professional culture of social workers.
The author analyses various approaches to the definition of culture, whose central link is the human being as the subject of cultural development. Within this approach the concept of professional culture as the projection of general culture is distinguished, which is visible in the quality system of professional activity. Moreover, the exclusiveness of the concept of professional culture for the image of a specialist is underlined. Therefore, the image of a professional social worker is viewed as a collective subject whose components are: professional qualifications, psychological culture, and socio-demographical and physical data.
More attention is drawn to the psychological culture, which is created on the basis of the entirety of convictions, experience, self-reflection, as well as psychological and pedagogical influence. Moreover, the author analyses such components of psychological culture as: norms, knowledge, significance, value and symbols in the process of shaping of a social educator’s culture.
Among the cultural and psychological signs of behaviour, which should be considered when the psychological culture of a specialist is shaped, the author enumerates: getting to know oneself, constructive co-existence with other people, appropriate self-control of one’s own emotions, acts and thoughts, competent managing one’s own life, harmonious self-development.
At the end of his theoretical considerations, the author states that in order to supply social workers with appropriate professional qualifications, the students should be involved in the culture-creating process and focused on humanistic values. Therefore, the level of psychological culture can be consciously raised by means of specially prepared programmes of development and self-development.
Key words: definition of culture, psychological culture, professional qualifications
Creating of the Student Rhetorical Culture
This article presents one of the priority objectives of the contemporary higher education – educating a personality with an extensive creative potential, moral stability and flexibility, which is psychologically healthy, harmonious and connected with the high culture of connection with people. Matters associated with the concept of “rhetorical culture” are analysed: first of all, the characteristics of the personality (in this case the student’s personality), in which the rhetorical culture is an indicator of spiritual development, formed rhetorical knowledge, skills and habits, as well as abilities and needs for rhetoric activity; secondly, the category of activity, in which the rhetoric culture of future graduates is implemented in all kinds of professional activity, and contributes itself to the formation of multi-aspect relations: ensures own knowledge, own development and own education by the rhetoric experience gained by people.
The rhetoric education and culture identity, for a future social educator in particular, is based on the basic principles of pedagogy, rhetoric, psychology and art. The majority of taught humanistic subjects comprise a rhetoric potential, whose aim is to educate a young personality. Each of these disciplines can, and should, participate in creating the student rhetoric culture.
Key words: rhetoric culture, rhetoric education, social educator training
Asocial Environment Subculture as a Factor Influencing the Problematic Behaviour of Adolescents
The above article presents the assessment of the value of the social environment impact on the behaviour of adolescents. The article concentrates on the concept of subculture, its definition, importance in shaping od the social behavior of an adolescent, and its psychological, pedagogical and legal components. The article describes in detail the social influence of the criminal environment subculture on the detained. Attention is drawn to the social character of the subculture of penal institutions in Ukraine. The author defines the correlation between the main values of the subculture in penal institutions and the criminal behavior of adolescents. Moreover, he points out to the negative effect of a confined social environment of a penal institution, which isolates the detained from the positive social relations. The fact that an adolescent is not aware that his own activities are asocial brings about crime-related behaviour, which, over a certain period of time, creates a dynamic stereotype. The basic task of an educator, a specialist working with an adolescent criminal, is to create the conditions which could protect the adolescent from the influence of his social environment, and not spoiling his personality.
Key words: social environment, subculture, behviour of adolescents
Husak Ludmyla, Jatsyshyn Natalija
Multimedia Lecturing and Discussions in Teaching English in Higher Educational Establishments
Lecture as a form of class which is prepared using an informative and monologue method. It is based on the systematic and concise oral transfer of a topic prepared in advance, conducted by a lecturer. The researchers claim that one of the drawbacks of lecture is a poor interaction between the lecturer and the listeners, which is particularly important in foreign language teaching.
It must be pointed out that multimedia technology is very important in foreign language teaching. The use of multimedia allows for full implementation of the principle of perception by means of demonstration, not only of a text, but also sound, colour and graphics, which contributes to activating various receptors in students and facilitates remembering.
The article presents all the conditions which a teacher using the multimedia technique has to fulfill.
Key words: lecture, multimedia techniques, foreign language teacher
Informational competences as components of person’s development according to the demands of Bologna process.
The article is concerned with the problem of transition from educating in a closed environment to a “network of knowledge” in an open educational environment. It presents the problems of a general modernization of education, influencing the process of shaping information skills in view of the requirements of the Bologna Process. The author draws conclusions concerning the fact that the basic factors in the development of professional skills of the contemporary employee are his information and communication skills.
Key words: information skills, Bologna Process, adult education
Volunteer Work as a Form of Social Activity
This article is concerned with the problem of volunteer work, which is understood as a voluntary, free of charge, and conscious activity performed for the benefit of other people. The article presents issues connected with the history of volunteer work in Poland and the legal basis of volunteer work, including valid acts of law. Attention is also drawn to the significance of volunteer work in social life. For a young man volunteering and carrying out certain commitments can be a perfect way of discovering his own identity and finding himself in various situations.
Key words: volunteer work, history of volunteer work, volunteering
The Impact of Volunteer Work in a Penal Institution on Shaping Practical Teaching Skills. Report on the implementation of an original programme of rehabilitation work of the Chair of Pedagogy of the Higher School of Management and Administration in Zamość
The main goal of volunteers working with persons detained in the Penal Institution is providing psychological support and activating them, so that they could learn how to properly function in a society. A great impact is put mainly on the development of interests of the detained, teaching them how to build good relations with other people and how to make a good use of free time. In our activities we use culture as the means of rehabilitation. Culture in this case has a preventive function, because having contact with culture prevents the negative effects of long isolation. Students working as volunteers in the Penal Institution can practically apply the knowledge they have gained during classes. By working with the detained young educators can develop their skills and, what is probably the most important, they become more sensitive to the needs of other people.
Key words: volunteer work, social rehabilitation, culture therapy
Supporting the Process of Educator Training within the “Student Volunteer Work” Programme
Many young people undertake volunteer work, which can take many forms. One example of such work can be the “Student Volunteer Work” programme, which is run by people seeking novel solutions within pedagogy. Within this programme, students-volunteers implement projects, and can check how effective a particular method of educational impact is with regard to persons who need help. Moreover, such a form of activity enables the volunteers to see how well they are doing and what their abilities are in many aspects of life.
Key words: volunteer work, upbringing, education
Ewelina Anigacz, Anita Winiarczyk
Social Rehabilitation in Educating Institutions and in the Open Environment
This article presents issues connected with social rehabilitation, such as: rehabilitating education according to Stefan Kunowski, rehabilitative institutions, the activity and duties of probation officers supervising adolescents, functioning of probational centres for young people, education centres, penal institutions, etc.
Key words: rehabilitation, rehabilitative education, probation, penal institutions, foster families