Stefan Józef Pastuszka
MATTER OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN EDUCATION AND SOCIAL COMMUNICATION
Abstract: The article is an attempt to show the role of the electronic media in social communication and in education on the background of the media phenomena, occurring among others, under the influence of globalization and the free flow of ideas and ideologies. On the Polish media market run the following groups: public media, commercial, religious and so-called independent. The public media are essential for the preservation of pluralism, building of a democratic state of law and realization of the public service mission. The current system of financing public media does not provide sufficient funds for their activities, forcing them to fight with the commercial media for acquiring advertising. The consequence of this, is the commercialization of the program and the tendency to tabloidization its content. The public media adequately fulfill the mission of the protection of minors, the disabled, and national and ethnic minorities.
Keywords: education, electronic media, public media, sign language, subscription, television, radio, music education, local government, Catholic Church, Ecumenical Council, portal, company regional, Internet, reality show, globalization, the disabled, identity, value system, determinants, tabloidization
Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
THE EUROPEAN UNION’S INITIATIVES DIRECTED TOWARDS HELPING STREET CHILDREN ALL OVER THE WORLD
Abstract: The aim of the article is to present various initiatives undertaken by the European Union to help street children all over the world. The examples from selected countries demonstrate its activities in two dimensions: firstly, the provision of financial aid to local streetworking programmes and, secondly, cooperation with internal European Union structures, such as European Network on Street Children Worldwide (ENSCW) or the European Federation for Street Children (EFSC). Alongside positive observation, the article also offers critical comments regarding the involvement of the EU in the process of social reintegration of street children, including the lack of monitoring of the phenomenon of street children in the EU member states and other regions of the world (an example from Poland). This lack hinders the EU full involvement into creating projects offering help to street children and their families. The article suggests several solutions to the problem in question: 1) continuous monitoring of the phenomenon of street children, 2) implementing a greater number of reintegration programmes within the EU, 3) introducing suitable procedures of financing local programmes, and 4) introducing legal adjustments regulating street-working as a profession in the EU.
Keywords: European Union, humanitarian programmes, projects, street children, streetworking
Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu
CULTURAL CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION. THE ORIGIN OF MODERN CIVILIZATION CONDITIONS
Over the last two hundred years capitalism has shaped the society called a “modern” one and educated a new type of man called “homo oeconomicus,” whose life goal is a material success and the highest value — the benefit, living in luxury and constant increasing one’s wealth. Capitalism has also influenced the broadly understood culture, in which what is religious and spiritual has been replaced with what is secular, and the sacral dimension of man has been replaced with the material and utilitarian values. As a result of economic migration, family ties have weakened, which had a negative impact on the educational process in the family. The development of information technologies has contributed to the creation of a new quality of social life, in which the priority is information and communication. On this basis a new cultural movement has been created, called postmodernism, which is characterized by irrationalism, numerous “truths,” chaos in the process of thinking, negating universality and the need of any institutions, purposefulness and social life, characterized by moral relativism, promoting a consumer lifestyle and anti-pedagogy. Traditional pedagogy, as an antidote to the postmodern vision of man and world, encourages teaching a young man timeless values.
Keywords: modernism, postmodernism, timeless values education
AESTHETIC EDUCATION OF STUDENTS ON THE POLISH LANDS AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH AND THE 20TH CENTURIES
By aesthetic education the author means organised educational processes and the student’s own activities, aiming at shaping the student’s sensitivity to the aesthetic values of art and nature, developing aesthetic taste, expressed in the tendency to be surrounded by beauty, and expressing beauty in the student’s own artistic activity. The aim of the study was to show the form and methods of aesthetic education at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries on the Polish lands, which were then under the Russian, Austrian and Prussian rule. Memoirs and fiction constituted the source material for the study. The invaders did not care for the aesthetic education of young Polish people, so young Polish people had to take care of it themselves: by reading masterpieces of Polish literature, forbidden by the invaders, and by taking part in cultural life. Students also became engaged in an independent artistic activity, taking part in staging Polish drama works and nativity plays and organizing literary lectures. Some young people conducted lively publicist and literary activities and developed their talents, for example musical or art talents, and later many of them became distinguished scholars or literary, culture and art creators.
Keywords: aesthetic education, participation in culture, artistic creation, literary creation, Polish memoirs from the 19th and 20th centuries, Polish 19th and 20th century fiction
PERMANENT EDUCATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT OF BOLESŁAW PRUS
Abstract: Bolesław Prus (1847-1012), a renown Polish writer, columnist and educator, devoted a lot of space in his fictional and journalistic writing to the problem of permanent education, which, at the time of the partitions of Poland, could only and exclusively be realized using the social forces, because the invaders were not interested in the development of education among Poles. The most important objective of adult education was the eradication of illiteracy, especially among farmers and workers. He encouraged the town and country intelligentsia to teach farmers and workers the art of reading and writing. He also drew a lot of attention to issuing manuals, which were helpful in gaining scientific, psychological, economic and religious knowledge. He also noticed the great role of educational lectures, whose objective was the popularisation of scientific, technical and cultural achievements. He appreciated the role of museums and agricultural, agricultural and industrial, hygienic and educational exhibitions in presenting craft, industrial and agricultural innovations. Many of Prus’s ideas are realized in contemporary permanent education.
Keywords: permanent education, continuing education, illiteracy, the educational thought of Bolesław Prus
dr Janusz Skwarek
MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PEDAGOGY OF THE FUTURE: THE DISAPPEARANCE OF the SOCIAL COMPETENCE OF the YOUNG GENERATION AND FUNCTIONAL AND CULTURAL ILLITERACY
This article focuses in particular on educational problems connected with the upbringing of the young generation, which we start to witness nowadays, and which may become even more common in the future. The author notices that our attention should be drawn to one of the problems in particular, that is the disappearance of important life abilities in young people, defined as key social competences, as well as the phenomena of secondary, functional, mathematical and cultural illiteracy. Moreover, the article presents some methods of dealing with the above enumerated problems.
Key words: education, social competences, functional illiteracy, mathematical illiteracy, cultural illiteracy
The need of media education
The mass media are an indispensable element in a person’s life. They have a decisive impact on the political and social life. They have also become deeply rooted in family life. It is also the child’s environment that has become dominated by the television, radio, video, and new generation media, such as the DVD, the satellite TV, the computer, computer games, the Internet and the mobile phone. The mass media may play a positive role both in school education and in education itself. However, they are also the source of serious educational threats, promoting pornography, violence, aggression, and a consumptive life style. Therefore, their ubiquity cannot be neglected by educators. There is a need for media education for children and young people in all types of schools, including higher education schools. Its goal is to show the influence of the media on a person’s personality and preparing students for appropriate reception of the media.
Key words: mass media, media education
The Power of Teachers’ Expectations
This article presents a flagship experiment in educational psychology, showing the influence of the teachers’ expectations with regard to a student on his actual performance. It shows the mechanism of transformation of expectations into the phenomenon of a self-fulfilling prophesy (the Pygmalion effect and the Golem effect). It shows the role of intermediary factors in this mechanism: the qualities of the teacher, the qualities of the student, and certain situational variables. The article provides some suggestions on the teaching practice.
Key words: mechanism of self-fulfilling prophecy in education, the Pygmalion effect, the Golem effect, the concept of “four factors”
Educating through art
Art has accompanied the man since the dawn of time. As one of the basic fields of his activity, it has been a manifestation of creativity and the foundation of timeless values. This article undertakes to present issues connected with broadly understood aesthetic education and educating through art and music. The educational value of music is discussed, as well as the educational benefits resulting from musical experience, regardless of how big it is.
Key words: aesthetic education, education through art, music education, music art