2014 Vol. XVI No. 2

zsim-2014-xvi-2Barbara Jurkowska1, Tomasz Saran1, Wioletta Tuszyńska-Bogucka2, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska3, Grzegorz Nowicki4, Andrzej Prystupa5, Marcin Gniewek6

1 Instytut Medycyny Wsi w Lublinie
2 Zakład Psychologii Wychowawczej i Psychologii Rodziny, Instytut Psychologii, UMCS w Lublinie
3 Zakład Matematyki i Biostatystyki Medycznej, Uniwersytet Medyczny, Lublin
4Zakład Kwalifikowanej Pomocy Medycznej z Pracownią Ratownictwa Medycznego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lubline
5 Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
6 Zakład Rehabilitacji i Fizjoterapii Katedry Rehabilitacji, Fizjoterapii i Balneoterapii, Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie

Stress management and disease acceptance in patients with osteoarthritis


Our contemporary times are marked by a cult of health, youth and fitness, and the onset of a disease of affluence affecting the skeletal system(such as osteoarthritis) brings a crisis that induces the need to adjust the stress management styles and the level of disease acceptance to the current state of health and activity level. Depending on the type of the joint affected and the subjective assessment of the severity of the illness, patients prefer to follow various styles of stress management, and their acceptance level depends on how much of their fitness they have lost and how much pain they feel, both of which are the main everyday symptoms of the disease felt by patients. In recognition of this, the extended period of professional activity and the challenges of the difficult labour market result in patients needing broadly defined medical rehabilitation that would take into account not only the medical aspect, but also generally defined psychological assistance aimed at changing the perception of the stressor – disease, as well as increasing the level of disease acceptance so as to improve the quality of life of patients and their families.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, acceptance of illness, coping with stress


Ewa Kostrzewa-Zabłocka1, Piotr Dziemidok1, Wanda Mika2, Krzysztof Marczewski3

1 Oddział Diabetologii, Instytut Medycyny Wsi im. Witolda Chodźki w Lublinie
2 Studentka Wydziału Pielęgniarstwa Wyższej Szkoły im. Bogdana Jańskiego w Chełmie
3 Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu, Wydział Fizjoterapii i Pedagogiki

Burnout syndrome among nurses


Introduction. Work experience in human life is important. It is one of the most important activity in the life of an adult. It can affect positively, but it can also be a source of frustration and mental discomfort. The nursing profession ranks among the occupations in which chronic stress is an inherent property of and stems from the very nature of the profession. Nurses work carries a particular psychological burden, the source of which is the second person often located in an extreme situation. The nurse works in a context of strong and long-lasting emotional tension. One of the most dangerous effects of stress at work is burnout, leading to the present treatment charges, and also prevents nurses to further their professional development.

Objective. The aim of this study was to test if subjected to survey nurses have knowledge about burnout, accompanying symptoms and the ways to prevent them.

Material and methods. A survey was carried out between September and October 2012. The study involved 48 nurses and 2 nurses working in different wards and in the hospital clinic Independent Public Provincial Hospital in Chelm. The study was based diagnostic survey method. We developed a questionnaire to the applicable standards and principles of constructing research questionnaire and contained 23 questions. The issues included in the survey concerned the specifications of respondents: gender, age, marital status, time in the profession and to verify the knowledge of issues relating to nurses working in the hospital and hurting in terms of awareness of burnout and whether there is a burn-out syndrome and what are the ways of dealing with stress.

Results. All respondents (100%) confirmed knowledge of burnout. Stress is an integral part of nursing work (49%) and experienced it 46% of respondents. Factors that contribute to the onset of stressful situations had too many duties (58%), “paperwork” work (46%) and a small number of staff (44%). The cause of the greatest stress at work by the respondents were suffering patients (34%), hard contact with the patient and their families (24%) and contact with death (22%). A symptom of burnout was mostly fatigue and exhaustion (46%). Half of the respondents coped with the phenomenon of burnout reading a book, at 40% while maintaining social contacts and the same watching TV. The way to stress was present in 32% of nurses raise their professional qualifications and in 22% of cultivated sport. Only 8% used psychologist counselin

Conclusion. In the case of burnout, only 30% of the study group reaches recognized methods of support: 8% psychologist, and 22% physical activity.

Keywords: nurse, stress, burnout, prevention




Ewa Kostrzewa-Zabłocka1, Krzysztof Marczewski2, Violetta Gac-Gowinek3

1 Katedra Pielęgniarstwa Wydziału Fizjoterapii i Pedagogiki, Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu
2 Oddział Nefrologii-Endokrynologii, Nadciśnienia Tętniczego i Chorób Wewnętrznych Wojewódzkiego Szpitala Specjalistycznego im. Papieża Jana Pawła II w Zamościu
3 Studentka Wydziału Pielęgniarstwa Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu

The professional development of nurses after obtaining a bachelor’s degree at bridging studies at the Zamosc University of Management and Administration


Introduction. Nursing has always accompanied people. Over the centuries, experienced periods of slow and difficult development, there were times major successes as well as failures. At that time it shaped the many beautiful ideals, values and traditions that are nurtured and cultivated until today. Nursing come a long way before it became a profession. The profession a nurse has enjoyed the respect of society. Nurses are becoming more educated, professional, inspiring respect for patients and the medical community and are seen as competent.

Aim of the study. Presentation of the changes that took place in the education of nurses and examine how bridging studies in WSZiA in Zamosc contributed to the further development of professional nursing staff.

Material and methods. The study involved 151 nurses working population, are working in the Provincial Hospital. Pope John Paul II and the Non-public Hospital in Zamosc and who have completed bridging studies at WSZiA. The study used a research tool in the form of a questionnaire composed of 31 questions.

Results. In the survey of 1Ą7 (97,4%) women and 4 (2,6%) men. Most of the respondents (124 people) worked in the Provincial Hospital. Pope John Paul II in Zamosc. For the 92 people interviewed place of residence was the city, and for 59 village. More than half of the respondents were aged 41-50 years. What is interesting among respondents 70 people, are employees of 21-30 years of work experience. Most of the respondents, as many as 137 were of the opinion that bridging studies majoring in nursing in WSZiA in Zamosc broadened their knowledge in the field of nursing. Among the people surveyed in 2010-2013, four people have already completed the second cycle (Master for nurses), and twelve people completed specialized training for nurses, which is specialization. The largest group of nurses (22 people) completed specialist courses, 26 other qualification courses.

Conclusions. Persons who completed bridging studies continued to develop training courses for professional specialization, or specialization courses as well as specialized qualification and further training for nurses. Completed bridging studies in over half of the respondents influenced the growth of professional prestige by obtaining wage increases, but only 15 people were promoted to higher positions.

Keywords: nursing, professional development, bridging studies, Zamosc




Mirosława Sidor1, Emilia Komorowska2, Ewelina Kukawska2

1 PSW im. Papieża Jana Pawła II w Białej Podlaskiej
2 Zdrowie Publiczne, studia II stopnia PSW im. Papieża Jana Pawła II w Białej Podlaskiej

Spa medical care with regard to natural sources in the opinion of elderly people


Spa medical care, using natural sources, as mineral waters and gases, peloids and climate factors, deals with senile age diseases, applying prophylaxis and rehabilitation. The aim of the present paper is cognition of elderly people’s opinions about spa treatments using natural sources.

Materials and methods. Tested were 70 persons in the age of 60 or above (according to the WHO classification). Used was the diagnostic survey method, whereas a tool applied was an author’s survey questionnaire.

Research results. According to the research results proved was, that together with the growing number of elderly people – increasing is also a need for such healing methods, what improve the quality of life, are natural, easy accessible and don’t cause any side effects. The polled people decided to take part in a spa therapeutic trip in order to improve their health, in 25,78% they suffered from rheumatic illnesses. They pointed out mineral waters and mud treatment as the most effective methods. As natural sources helpful for the respiratory system, the respondents named iodine (83,72%) and salt (61,54%). According to the data of the Central Statistical Office, the most frequently visited health resorts in Poland were Kołobrzeg, Ciechocinek, Szczawno-Zdrój, Polanica-Zdrój and Lądek-Zdrój. In the respondents’ opinion, in turn, the most popular were Nałęczów, Kołobrzeg and Ciechocinek. The majority of tested women and men admitted, that too long time limit of waiting for a trip hinders the access to medical care.

Keywords: spa medical care, natural sources, elderly people




Małgorzata Rycyk, Krzysztof Marczewski

Katedra Fizjoterapii WSZiA w Zamościu
Oddział Nefrologii Endokrynologii Nadciśnienia Tętniczego i Chorób Wewnętrznych SPWSS im. Papieża Jana Pawła II w Zamościu

Is high BMI a psycho-social phenomenon?


Obesity is a serious problem of „civilized” countries, since it causes serious health problems which require costly treatment. In spite of the fact that many studies were conducted in this filed, still there is no clear answer to the question what are sources of this problem. Research has indicated that the obese and overweight people express a strong desire towards eating. As a result, they disregard the potential danger connected with such lifestyle. The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a relationship between the level of BMI, and the desire to eat, even though it can lead to health problems. Materials and methods. The survey was conducted among the students of the School of Management and Administration in Zamość, in the years 2010 and 2011. In the first study, 228 questionnaires were received (179 women and 47 men, 2 people have refused to provide information about their gender).

The following year, acquired 94 questionnaires (69 women and 25 men). Age of the respondents ranged from 21 to 47 years (the average age in 2010 was 25 ±3 years, in 2011 26 ±4 years). On the basis of weight and height of the respondents, it was possible to calculated their BMI (as far as the first group is concerned 14 questionnaires were excluded since they lack of data about the one of aspect, with the second one 7 copies were rejected). Results. People with high BMI more often consume junk food without concerninig significant medical contraindications. Keywords: BMI, appetite, overweight, obesity.

Keywords: BMI, appetite, overweight, obesity




Robert Walaszek1, Tomasz Szurmik2, Anna Marszałek3, Katarzyna Walaszek4, Marcin Burdacki4

1 Katedra Rekreacji i Odnowy Biologicznej Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego w Krakowie
2 Wydział Etnologii i Nauk o Edukacji Uniwersytetu Śląskiego w Cieszynie
3 Publiczna Szkoła Podstawowa Stowarzyszenia Przyjaciół Szkół Katolickich w Hucisku Pewelce
4 Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Krakowie, student III roku Kierunku Fizjoterapia

The assessment of longitudinal foot arch in 5-year-old boys and girls living in rural areas


The level of fitness and efficiency of the feet depends on their morphological structure, especially on their longitudinal and transverse arch. The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal foot arch in 5-year-old boys and girls living in rural areas. The subjects were 60 children, all aged 5, including 30 boys and 30 girls. The assessment was done in two nurseries, in the region of Malopolska, between 20 March and 18 April 2014. The plantocontourgraphic method was used to assess the longitudinal foot arch. During the assessment, the subjects were standing, and therefore the weight of the body was evenly distributed. Every footprint was marked with Clarke angle and the Sztriter-Godunov index KY, and later compared with the norms. The main statistical measures were used in order to describe the subjects; the arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated. The t-student test was used to analyse the differences between the measured parameters. The study showed that the right feet in the 5-year-old girls had a higher arch than their left feet. The difference between the right and left feet in the studied boys, however, was statistically insignificant.

Keywords: foot arch, plantocontourgraphic method, children, rural background




Tomasz Szurmik1,2, Karol Bibrowicz2, Robert Walaszek3

1 Uniwersytet Śląski, Wydział Etnologii i Nauk o Edukacji, Cieszyn
2 Centrum Naukowo Badawcze Postawy Ciała Wyższej Szkoły Edukacji i Terapii w Poznaniu
3 Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, Katedra Rekreacji i Odnowy Biologicznej, Kraków

Suggestions of group correction exercises including individual adjustments for children and youth with low grow scoliosis


Nowadays we observe a constant searching more and more effective methods of the prevention and cure of scoliosis. The I° scoliosis is considered to be a kind of illness more often occurring in the population of children and young people. According to this there is a necessity of early and precise diagnosis as well as searching more effective methods of improvement of the ill children and young people. There is also the necessity of creation of the middle link between school prevention and specialized cure of the patients with scoliosis. The suggested method of improving patients with Io scoliosis in the form of the station circuit includes the elements of different methods, especially “Pressio” and Lehnert-Schrott. In the article there are performed the conceptions of the own exercises in the form of the station circuit, maintaining the individual selection of the exercises and the three-faceted effect on the individual curvature curves.

Keywords: I° scoliosis, station circuit, three-faceted scoliosis correction




Małgorzata Molenda, Mariusz Molenda, Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop

Katedra Zdrowia Kobiety, Zakład Patologii Ciąży, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach

Trigger points and acupuncture points correlation. An overview of literature


Trigger points are increasingly popular in contemporary physiotherapy while pointbased therapies have been used by Chinese medicine for millennia, thus a question of a possible relation between those two classes of points arises. The aim of the present paper is to present how the correlation between trigger points and acupuncture points is presented in academic literature. The first study on the subject was published in 1977 by Melzack and reported 100% anatomic and 71% clinical pain correspondences of those points. The data and theoretical foundations of the study were undermined by a paper of Birch published in 2003. In respond Dorsher and Fleckenstein published a series of studies, proving both anatomic and clinical (in the treatment of pain and somatovisceral disorders) correspondence of trigger and acupuncture points as well as the consistency of the distribution of trigger point region’s referred pain patterns to the meridians distribution of their anatomically corresponding acupuncture points. Those findings suggest that trigger points and classical acupuncture points represent the same physiological phenomenon, discovered with the use of different methodology by different cultures in different millennia.

Keywords: trigger points, acupuncture points, myofascial pain, acupuncture




Ewa Kostrzewa-Zabłocka1, Krzysztof Marczewski2, Adam Borowiec3

1 Katedra Pielęgniarstwa Wydziału Fizjoterapii i Pedagogiki, Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu
2 Oddział Nefrologii-Endokrynologii, Nadciśnienia Tętniczego i Chorób Wewnętrznych Wojewódzkiego Szpitala Specjalistycznego im. Papieża Jana Pawła II w Zamościu
3 Student Wydziału Pielęgniarstwa Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Administracji w Zamościu

Assessment of the patient knowledge about functioning at home after knee joint replacement surgery


Introduction. Osteoarthritis of the knee joints is a syndrome of local and systemic pathological processes common in both sexes, over time leading to a significant degree of mobility limitations, chronic pain syndrome and walking impairment. Where conservative treatment does not bring improvement, surgical treatment is necessary. The most effective surgical method is the replacement surgery, which involves overall replacement of the joint elements. The patient recovery and intensive physiotherapy start almost immediately after the surgery. To ensure total recovery the patient should acquire the information communicated by a doctor, nurse and physiotherapist as fully as possible.

Purpose of the paper. Assessment of the patient knowledge about functioning at home after knee joint replacement surgery and discharge from the hospital ward.

Material and methods The study involved 30 patients of the Orthopaedic Ward at the District Hospital in Łęczna who underwent the knee joint replacement surgery. A survey comprising 18 questions touched upon socio-demographic data, patient knowledge about the further independent functioning at home, the importance of rehabilitation for full recovery and the role of nurses in the patient education.

Results. Of those surveyed, 20 people were female and 10 were male. The average age was 61-70 years. The vast majority of patients (90%) suffered from overweight or obesity of I and II degree. As many as 20 people (66.7%) found their well-being prior to surgery as bad. Only 8 patients (26.7% ) said that after the knee replacement

surgery their knees are healthy. Half of the respondents (50%) coped well with the daily activities, 13 patients (43.3%) dealt on average and 2 persons (6.7%) did badly. Of all the respondents, 23 people (76.7%) knew how to prepare a dwelling for the return from hospital, where to purchase ancillary equipment such as crutches, when to report for a follow-up visit at the Orthopaedic Clinic. Only 7 patients (23.3%) had no such knowledge. Of all those surveyed, twenty-six patients (86.7%) were aware of the complications. The same number of patients knew how to fight the pain in the operated knee, which occurs several weeks after surgery and can severely limit the recovery progress.

Conclusions. Education is an important therapeutic element when it comes to treatment and prevention of complications. A wide range of patients after the knee replacement surgery follows the recommendations of a physiotherapist and knows the distressing symptoms of postoperative complications. Knee replacement surgery contributes to the patient’s health improvement. People closest to the patient include an orthopaedic doctor, a nurse and a physiotherapist, who communicate knowledge and monitor self-reliance of patients.

Keywords: knee joint, knee joint replacement, recovery, education




Piotr Gawda, Sylwia Kolasa, Piotr Majcher

Katedra Rehabilitacji, Fizjoterapii i Balneologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie

Effect of physical therapy on swallowing and chewing in patients after resection and reconstruction surgery of oral cavity cancer


Introduction. Every year in Poland there are over 7 thousands of new cases of oral cavity cancer and about 3,5 thousands of deaths caused by this disease. It is strongly recommended to notice that these types are showing tendency to rise. 50% of patients with oral cavity cancer survive for 5 years. Main causes of these frightening statistics are regressions of illness, metastases to local lymph nodes or recurrent tumors in nearby areas. Despite the progress and development of diagnostic methods, surgery techniques and additional treatment percentage of deaths did not change for past decades. It seems that surgery treatment are related with chemotherapy and radiotherapy isn’t really effective but failures are linked with lack of clear breakthrough in therapy of oral cavity cancers, prevention programs and low level of health education which could bring down percentage of deaths among people with cancer in head and neck area. One of the consequences of surgical treatment of cancers of the oral cavity are dysfunction in chewing and swallowing, which negatively affects daily functioning and quality of life.

The aim of the paper is the assessment of the impact of selected physiotherapy techniques to improve swallowing and chewing function in patients after surgical treatment of oral malignant tumor.

Material and methods. Study involved patients treated in the clinic of Otolaryngology SPSK4 in Lublin, in which the resection of the malignant tumor of the oral cavity had been carried out. Physiotherapy methods used in patients include treatment of the soft tissues around the mouth. To evaluate the ability of swallowing and chewing a questionnaire survey concerning the act of swallowing and chewing was applied.

The results. The effect of physiotherapy is to improve in terms of swallowing and chewing which has been demonstrated by means of a questionnaire survey and the study of the efficiency of the motor-mouth organs.

Conclusions. Improvement of patients after surgery of the mouth area is complex and depends on many factors. The use of selected techniques for improved muscle balance physiotherapy mouth area, which is an important element to improve swallowing and chewing functions. Properly conducted physiotherapy in patients with oral positively affects the quality of life.

Keywords: quality of life, mandibular reconstruction, cancer of the oral cavity, oncological rehabilitation




Mariusz Molenda, Małgorzata Molenda, Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop

Katedra Zdrowia Kobiety, Zakład Patologii Ciąży, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny w Katowicach

Acupuncture in rheumatoid arthritis. A literature overview


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. WHO classified RA as a condition for which acupuncture had been proved, through controlled trials, to be an effective treatment. The purpose of the following paper is to present the use of acupuncture for symptom management in RA based on the relevant literature. Studies on acupuncture, both as an adjunctive therapy and monotherapy, suggest it is effective for patients with RA. Acupuncture combined with antirheumatic medication alleviates the inflammatory response, improves the analgesic effect and patients’ activities of daily life. Acupuncture as a monotherapy also alleviates the symptoms, improves patients’ physical function and the quality of life. Some researchers, however, attribute the clinical effects of acupuncture to its analgesic properties and claim the therapy has no antiinflammatory actions in RA. At the same time the reviews published on the subject present ambiguous evidence for acupuncture efficacy in RA therapy. Further studies of better size and quality are therefore warranted.

Keywords: acupuncture, rheumatoid arthritis




Urszula Parnicka

Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa im Szymona Szymonowica w Zamościu

Physical activity in the prevention in gerontology of older people


Introduction. Preventive Gerontology is a field that is of great importance in shaping the face of old age. It is focused on theoretical research and practical activities aimed at maintaining, strengthening and developing of older people’s health potential. It sets a particularly important place for physical activity within the limits of optimal human capabilities and its biological needs.

Objective. The main goal of this work is to show the health benefits of physical activity on the background of involution processes, i.e. the aging of particular physiological systems and human motor skills.

Material and methods: The work is based on the available and current literature on the subject, showing research in this field. Studies were selected based on sources subordinated to the theme of work.

Results. Many of extensive research indicates that physical activity is an important element of prevention in gerontology and is an essential factor in the rehabilitation of elderly people in various aspects of their health (physical, mental and social). Overall improvement of health through physical activity relates to improving of functioning of cardiovascular and respiratory systems and prevents degenerative changes of the spine. It also relates to preventing the emergence of civilization diseases, mental relaxation, pleasure, satisfaction, socialization, escape from loneliness, combating boredom and monotony of everyday life and spending large amounts of time in a valuable way. Properly selected and stimulated health training helps to improve the overall physical fitness through higher quality of all motor features.

Conclusions. Together with a tendency to prolong the life expectancy, the needs for the development of research on the role of physical activity in the elderly are increasing. Physical activity in old age is an extremely valuable part of a healthy lifestyle and prevention and treatment of many diseases. It prolongs independence up to an old age and is an important factor in coping with stress. Considering the physical activity in the prevention in gerontology of older people we should talk about it in terms of human duty and not voluntary. Optimal physical activity can reduce the cost of health care and social care, and, above all, may give the additional meaning to the late years and improve the quality of life.

Keywords: physical activity, prevention, older people




Marta Soboń1, Rafał Sapuła123, Sebastian Chrzan1

1 Zamojska Klinika Rehabilitacji Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Administracji, Zamość
2 Katedra Fizjoterapii Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Administracji, Zamość
3 Katedra Fizjoterapii Wyższej Szkoły Informatyki i Zarządzania, Rzeszów

Physical activity knowledge of the elderly


Background. Most of elderly people have a clear decrease of their physical activity, which is restricted to daily activities such as shopping, cooking, cleaning, work. Meanwhile, the maintenance of high physical activity in old age is one the factors predicting longer life, it allows older people to keep autonomy and independence, and thus contributes to improving the quality of their lives.

Material and methods. The study involved 30 patients (17 women, 13 men), mean age: 74 ±6 years, treated at the Rehabilitation Department of Zamość University of Management and Administration.. Respondents were given a questionnaire form drafted by the authors to fill by containing 9 questions related to physical activity, which were of closed and open.

Results. Studies have shown that people with secondary or higher education significantly more often recognize the positive impact of physical activity on psychological state (p < 0,001) and in the prevention of diabetes (p = 0,048) than those with primary education or vocational education. This latter group (92% of respondents) say that physical activity has no effect on the psychological state (p < 0,001). More than half of the patients in both groups believes that physical activity can have an effect on pain reduction.

Conclusions. Only those with secondary or higher education recognize the positive impact of physical activity on the psychological state and in the prevention of diabetes. However, knowledge of the physical activity of the elderly is definitely insufficient.

Keywords: physical activity, the elderly, knowledge




Sebastian Chrzan12, Marta Soboń1, Rafał Sapuła123, Krzysztof Marczewski124

1Zamojska Klinika Rehabilitacji Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Administracji, Zamość
2Katedra Fizjoterapii Wyższej Szkoły Zarządzania i Administracji, Zamość
3Katedra Fizjoterapii Wyższej Szkoły Informatyki i Zarządzania, Rzeszów
4Oddział Nefrologiczno-Endokrynologiczny Chorób Metabolicznych i Wewnętrznych ze Stacją Dializ Szpitala im. Papieża Jana Pawła II, Zamość

The presence hypertension and knowledge of risk factors for heart attack in patients with obesity


Background. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that this condition affects about one billion people in the world. In Poland, hypertension is diagnosed in 29% of adults, but there about 12%-14,1% treated effectively among them. Because high blood pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, it should be detected early and treated appropriately.

Materials and methods. The study involved 180 patients (60 women, 120 men), mean age: 59 ±12 years old, treated for neck, thoracic and/or low back spine pain at the Rehabilitation Department of Zamość University of Management and Administration. Patients were divided according to the criterion BMI into two groups. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements were performed daily for 10 days with a weekend break, before and immediately after rehabilitation. Each patient also filled the questionnaire.

Results. Most frequently chosen risk factors are high blood pressure (83%), and also overweight and obesity among obese people (83%). 17% of people with normal BMI and 29% with overweight and obesity misjudge their blood pressure (or does not admit to hypertension). It has been observed that the cycle of rehabilitation significantly reduced systolic blood pressure in patients with overweight and obesity (p = 0,031).

Conclusions. People with overweight and obese have a significantly higher systolic blood pressure than people with normal BMI and their awareness of the cardiovascular risk factors is not sufficient. Exercises are more beneficial for blood pressure in people with obesity.

Keywords: hypertension, overweight, obesity, risk factors




Zofia Kubińska, Dorota Tomczyszyn

Państwowa Szkoła Wyższa im. Papieża Jana Pawła II w Białej Podlaskiej

The competence of the health promoter— challenge for physical education teachers


According to education reform recommendations that are the part of the programme basis in the years 2009/2010, physical education teacher coordinate health education in school. The author’s intention was to present current difficult teachers” situation. They are obliged to execute the new didactic tasks as: direction of physical education towards health effects and responsibility for health education in school. However, the legislator does not support the physical education teachers in their education in the field of health promotion and education. The analysis of selected authors’ opinions and attitudes towards this issue has been made in this article. It turned out that the authors do not interchangeably state that the physical education teacher is cognizant of the implementation of health education in school. So far, the problem of the extending of teachers’ knowledge on the health education has still not been solved. To reach competence in the field of health education, the teachers have to participate in payable courses “The health education in physical education.”

Keywords: competences, health education, physical education teacher




Grzegorz Dzida, Katarzyna Golec, Andrzej Prystupa, Natalia Ścirka

Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie

Portal vein thrombosis. Causes, diagnosis, treatment


Portal vein thrombosis leads to deterioration of blood outflow from the portal system and causes the development of portal hypertension. About a half of cases of thrombosis mentioned above is idiopathic. The most common known cause of this state is cirrhosis. Among other liver diseases which can lead to the discussed pathology are Willson disease, Budd-Chiari syndrome, hepatitis and liver neoplasma. The latest progress of medicine made the diagnostics of this disease easier and faster, which enables to prevent various complications. The method of portal vein thrombosis treatment depends on its cause, duration, localization and severity.

Keywords: portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension, cirrhosis of the liver




Sylwia Milaniuk1, Emilia Kancik1, Andrzej Prystupa1, Beata Szczuka1, Jerzy Mosiewicz2, Radosław Pietura3

1 Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie
2 Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny Nr 1 w Lublinie
3 Samodzielna Pracownia Diagnostyki Obrazowej